Are these instructions meant to be executed on CentOS 1804?

Good afternoon from Singapore, I came across this Linux Journal article titled "DIY: Build a Custom Minimal Linux Distribution from Source", written by Petros Koutoupis. Link: <> <a href="" title=""></a> Are the instructions in this article meant to be executed with ease on CentOS 1804 or perhaps easier on other Linux distros? Please advise.

"WARNING: fdisk GPT support is currently new"


I'm currently teaching Linux system administration to a class at the
local "chambre de commerce". The course is based mainly on a minimal
CentOS 7 installation.

Usually my preferred tool for handling manual GPT partitioning is gdisk,
which is not installed on a minimal install. I just gave the good old
fdisk a spin, which enables GPT partition table creation with the 'g'

Here's what I get when listing a GPT-partitioned drive with fdisk:

# fdisk -l /dev/sdb
WARNING: fdisk GPT support is currently new, and therefore in an
experimental phase.

Swap space and hibernation on Centos 7

I just reinstalled Centos 7 on my Dell Inspiron 15 7570. This time I created a swap partitition that is 24 Gb in size since the machine has 16 Gb of memory. Still unable to hibernate with 'systemctl hibernate' which generates a message that a 'dependency on failed'.

Typing swapon -s or cat /proc/swaps I see:

/dev/dm-2 partititon 25161724 0 -1

free -m gives me:


Swap 24571 0 24571

What am I missing?

NetworkManager, multiple IPs, and selinux...


I was wondering if any one has seen issues with selinux name_bind denials
that result from having IP:PORT bindings for services to specific IP
addresses managed on an interface under NetworkManager's control?

I do realize that people will probably say stop using NetworkManager, and I
may, but the behavior is strange, and I'd like to have a better
understanding of what's going on.

The config is like so:

# nmcli c mod eth0 ipv4.addresses,
# nmcli c down eth0
# nmcli c up eth0
# getenforce
# systemctl start httpd
<errors> permission denied bindi

CentOS 7.5, Apache 2.4, Kerberos

Hi List,

My goal in sending this email is to get some direction on where to start
looking to solve my problem. Thank you all in advance for reading through
this and providing any guidance!

I'm working on moving to new servers, upgrading from CentOS 6.7 to CentOS
7.5. In this move, we are also upgrading from Apache/2.2.15 to Apache/
2.4.33. Our servers are all sitting behind a load balancer end point.

====System specifics====
CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core)
Server version: Apache/2.4.33 (Unix)
Server built: Jul 3 2018 11:33:42

On all of our CentOS 6.7 machines, kerberos works.

Copy to smb share fails with "invalid argument" on CentOS 7


I've had problems copying files to Windows shares from my CentOS 7
machine lately. I originally got this in the desktop file manager, but
find that I can also reproduce using gvfs-copy. "cp" to the directory
mounted by gvfs works just fine, on the other hand. Also, the problem
does not occur with small files - I think anything below 64k is OK.

Need help with Linux networking interfaces and NIC bonding

Hello everyone

I am running into some strange issues when configuring networking
interfaces on my physical server running Centos 7.5. Let me give you an
overview of what's going on:

We have a physical server, running CentOS 7.5. This server has one 4 port
NIC and one 2 port NIC and a Dell IDRAC port. The first port of the 4 port
NIC, em1, is used for Management traffic. The first port of the 2 port NIC,
is used for the second port in the NIC bond, device p6p2.

Trouble installing with Nvidia card

Hi all,
I'm having trouble doing a fresh install of CentOS 7.3. I'm using the DVD
installer ISO, burned to a USB flash drive. The system is a Supermicro
7048 with four Nvidia Titan Xp GPUs, and I have the monitor connected to
the first GPU. In the BIOS, VGA priority is set to Offboard, so I am
seeing POST messages (good).

The CentOS installer begins and shows a few messages on my monitor, but it
stops after "Reached target Basic System" ok. At this point, if I connect
a second monitor to the motherboard VGA port, then I see the installer
continuing on that screen.

CERN Dojo in 2 weeks: Registration closes soon

A reminder: The CERN Dojo will be held in Meyrin, Switzerland, on
October 19th, and registration closes soon, as we have to issue security
badges for all attendees.

Attendance is free, but you must register to get in the front door.

We'll have a full day of deep-dive CentOS content, in the midst of one
of the most famous research facilities in the world. You don't want to
miss it!

<a href="" title=""></a>

See you at CERN!

Frefox update from firefox-60.2.0-1.el7.centos.x86_64 to 60.2.1-1.el7.centos.x86_64 lost master password

Hi list,

Did an update to firefox last night and rebooted over night.

Today I find firefox started without asking for master password - funny
me thinks.

Try to log in to a web service I use and find that my password does not

Check preferences and find that no master password is set and the
password list / table is empty.

As I do not trust my passwords to the cloud I do not save these to my
firefox profile ..... so back to manual entry for all my sites....

Unknown NFSv4 ACL permission

Our new-to-us Isilon is handling NFSv4 ACLs differently than other NFS
file servers we've had. In particular, something causes an 'O' to pop
up in the permission field, but I cannot find any documentation of it.

2038 year Problem

Im using CentOS 7
Ist the 2038 year Problem solved in CentOS 7.5 64 bit Version

Johann Fock

Von meinem iPad gesendet

L1TF in CentOS

      I've applied the latest kernel upticks of kernel and
microcode_ctl for L1TF.
Just rpm updates and rebooted, no further changes.


L1TF has several mitigations.  So far I can see that only this one is

# cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/l1tf
Mitigation: PTE Inversion

Is this the definitive check?  I'm trying to confirm the L1Data Cache
flush isn't

How to install Banshee on CentOS 7?

on centos 7 I tried to install banshee from EPEL

yum install banshee

gotting this error:

Error: Package: banshee-2.6.2-11.el7.x86_64 (epel)
Requires: libgpod-sharp >= 0.8.2
You could try using --skip-broken to work around the problem
You could try running: rpm -Va --nofiles --nodigest

seems known problem but ignored to fix it in a year or more:

<a href="" title=""></a>

I tried "yum insall --skip-broken banshee" however this will skip
banshee itself!

a problem with the kdelibs-4.14.8-6.e17_3

I closed firefox before updating it and rebooting.
On starting it again, all my tabs came up blank.
Refresh didn't refresh.
I tried konqueror to see whether it would work.
It did.
I eventually discovered that I coulld click in the address
bar and hit enter to get the effect of a refresh.
While using konqueror, I got a pop up announcing a problem
with the subject package and asking me to report.
I clicked on report.
I got asked for my password.
I typed it in and clicked on authenticate.
The wheel is still spinning.
My GUI screen in effectively froxen
I can move the curson, but that is all.

email Server for CentOS 7

Hi folks.

I’m looking for an email server. I have a C7 box already with nginx, PostgreSQL, Sinatra and Ruby. So I don’t want to install PHP, Apache, MySQL, etc.

Are there any ways/tutorials to set up a mail server under those restrictions? It would serve multiple domains.

Cheers, Bee

CentOS-announce Digest, Vol 163, Issue 2

Send CentOS-announce mailing list submissions to
<a href="mailto:centos- ... at centos dot org">centos- ... at centos dot org</a>

To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
<a href="" title=""></a>
or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
<a href="mailto:centos-announce- ... at centos dot org">centos-announce- ... at centos dot org</a>

You can reach the person managing the list at
<a href="mailto:centos-announce- ... at centos dot org">centos-announce- ... at centos dot org</a>

When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
than "Re: Contents of CentOS-announce digest..."

Today's Topics:


Step-by-Step Tutorial: How to Setup Your Own e-Commerce Online Store using WooCommerce 3.4.5, Wordpress 4.9.8, and CentOS 1805 (LAMP) in Amazon AWS Cloud

Good morning from Singapore,

You can read my step-by-step tutorial on How to Setup Your Own e-Commerce Online Store using WooCommerce 3.4.5, Wordpress 4.9.8, and CentOS 1805 (LAMP) in Amazon AWS Cloud at any one of my two redundant blogs. My blogs were configured in RAID 1 mirroring array.

<a href="" title=""></a>

<a href="" title=""></a>

Thanks for reading!


Simple bash question

I am calling a bash script and passing in somestring that includes a "$"

myscript "$plusmore"

I want to assign in the myscript the $1 arg to something like

when I do that I dont get what I'm expecting. if I do
I still dont get what I'm expecting.

On the first assignment of MYTEXT I do not want the "$" to be treated as a
shell variable. I cannot find out how to do that.

I do not have the option of escaping the call to myscipt "\$plusmore".

NetworkManager and multiple dhcp router option


Our DHCP server broadcasts a router option consisting of 2 IPs.
Ideally they should both be set as default routes with different metrics, however this is not what is happening, only the first one gets used.
Anyone has any tips how to convince NetworkManager to do this?


Installing Centos 7 on 4K laptop

I have recently bought a Dell Inspiron 15 7570 laptop with a 4K display on which I want to install Centos 7. I had some problems with the first install and am therefore redoing the install.

One problem is the minuscule font, both in the text window and in the graphic installer. It has been suggested that I should add nomodeset to the grub installer. There is an option to use TAB to complete option choices but nomodeset does not seem to be one of the available options. Am I missing something?

Enable FIPS mode for apache?

Here's a question that I have3n't found the answer to yet: does anyone
know the effect of enabling FIPS mode for apache? Will it break existing
websites? Does code need changing? Configuration, other than enabling it?


Seagate - experience/opinion on vendor?

hi guys

I have rather a large set of Seagate's SAS ST32000444SS, over a hundred
- experience I'm having from those in conjunction with their tech
support is abysmal.

I'm trying to update firmware of these drives and nothing works,
including tech support.

... and I cannot help but wonder - is just me who is so unlucky and
getting very, very poor support(taking naturally only of Linux) or in
fact Seagate are rubbish!

Care to share your say?

thanks, L.

Which is the best open source ecommerce platform?

Good afternoon from Singapore,

There are far too many choices when it comes to open source ecommerce solutions.

Are there any credible rankings of open source ecommerce platforms?

Which open source ecommerce solution do you think is the best and tell me why.

Thank you.


Turritopsis Dohrnii Teo En Ming's Academic Qualifications as at 30 Oct 2017

[1] <a href="" title=""></a>

<>[2] <a href="" title=""></a>

<>[3] <a href="" title=""></a>


CVE-2018-14634 and kernel-debuginfo ?

The current mitigation for CVE-2018-14634 is a systemtap script
mentioned here:

<a href="" title=""></a>

It also mentions that one can build a kernel module to distribute
to other machines, but in any case one needs the corresponding
debuginfo packages to do either.

After enabling CentOS-Debug.repo, what I get is:

which doesn't match, since I'm not running the kernel,
so the systemtap script fails (tested only on CentOS 6 for the moment).

Is there some way to get kernel-debuginfo-2.6.32-754.3.

C7 and default sound

When I right click on desktop and bring up "sound". I have two items.

Digital output (S/PDIF) buildin audio
HDMI/Displayport 2 - Gk208 HDMI audio controller

It seems I always default to S/PDIF.... How can I get this to default to
HDMI always ? If I select HDMI and reboot it goes back to S/PDIF. I am
running pulse audio.



Has something replaced rhn-ssl-tool?

Using CentOS 7.5, I can't (and don't expect) to see rhn-ssl-tool.

But I was expecting to find something similar.

Firewall trouble with Kickstart


my goal is to install via kickstart a CentOS 7 NFS server but I fail to set the
firewall rules at installation time.
In my kickstart file I set:

# Firewall configuration
# ssh and NFS
# Ports 111 and 875 are for rquotad
firewall --enabled --ssh --service=nfs --port=111:tcp,111:upd,875:tcp,875:upd

On the installed server,  /root/anaconda-ks.cfg contains:
# Firewall configuration
firewall --enabled --port=111:tcp,111:upd,875:tcp,875:upd --service=ssh,nfs

But after install "firewall-cmd --list-all" returns:

public (active)
  target: default
  icmp-block-inversion: no

Failed to get to installer for CentOS 7 VM under CentOS 6...

I just tried to create a CentOS 7 VM on a CentOS 6 host, but it crashes to the
dracut prompt. I am using the PXEBoot installer. I *think* it is unhappy
with the (virtual) graphics controller, but I am not sure.

The rdsosreport.txt file is available here:
<a href="" title=""></a>

C7 and NVIDIA driver

Hi all,
I'm running C7 on i7 8700k/asus z370-a with an GTX1050.
I noticed that there are several problems installing Nvidia proprietary
driver. After one week of troubleshooting I got my solution. Hope that
can help other user.

I found this <a href="" title=""></a> but I've not
access to this content. In this content seems that the workaround is
using lightdm and mask gdm.

The case:

I tried using proprietary driver from nvidia site and from elrepo.
In all the case I got system that hungs during boot.

IPv6 fixed address using ip token

I'm about to publish a fixed IPv6 address and I understand I can use the ip
token command to lock the host part of the RA-assigned address to a fixed
value. But I can't see an obvious place to configure this. The logical
place would be in the ifcfg-<interface> file. Is there someplace else I
should set this? NetworkManager?

Help with multi-monitor Xorg stuff

I have an unusual use case. I wonder if anyone can help. We use a PC
with 8 HDMI outputs for powering a video wall in an operations centre.
We use two Matrox video cards, each with 4 outputs. "lspci" reports
these cards as" [AMD/ATI] Cape Verde PRO [FirePro W600]".

On an older version of CentOS 7, I used the proprietary AMD/ATI
driver. This had a utility (I roorget the name) that generated a
working xorg.conf file.

Centos7/Kde4 freeze


I have a fresh install of centos 7.4 with KDE on a laptop (latitude 5590)
connected to a DELL WD15 dockstation with an additionnal screen.
It works quite well, I have 2 screens side by side (default config), but....
If I add a second menu bar for the screen connected to the dockstation (KDE
allow for this) it is not possible anymore to start a kde session if the laptop
is not connected to the dock station (eg: at home), kde freeze and never show
any menubar. I have to use gnome to login and remove the .kde directory.

Is there a way to avoid this ?



LVM and Backups

Hey there,
I'm testing LVM snapshot to make backups and I've some questions about
snapshot lvm.

In my test case I have httpd, postgresql db and a dataset on a VM.

Running a backup I follow this steps:

1) Stop httpd
2) Create lvm snapshot on the dataset
3) Backup database
4) restart httpd (to avoid more downtime)
5) mount the snapshot and execute backup
6) umount and remove the snapshot

I think that this could be fine (if not please correct me)

Now when bacula performs the backup what happen if bacula are copying a
specified file and this specified file is modified?

Bacula will copy th

Very weird problem with handling symbolic links

Hi everyone,

I just discovered something very weird on a vanilla CentOS 7
installation. If I create a link to /tmp as a normal user, it looks like
I can't remove this link anymore. Here's what this looks like:

$ mkdir test_link
$ cd test_link/
$ ln -s /tmp/ link_to_tmp
$ ls -l
total 0

ipset-service save fails when module compiled into kernel

I want to use the ipset-service to store ipsets persistently across boots.
(For use by iptables rules. firewalld has direct support for persistent
ipsets but I need the more general capability of raw iptables.)

I'm using a kernel with ipsets compiled in, rather than loaded as a module.
The support script that saves ipsets checks if the module is loaded before
saving and finds nothing, so aborts.

CentOS-announce Digest, Vol 163, Issue 1

Send CentOS-announce mailing list submissions to
<a href="mailto:centos- ... at centos dot org">centos- ... at centos dot org</a>

To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
<a href="" title=""></a>
or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
<a href="mailto:centos-announce- ... at centos dot org">centos-announce- ... at centos dot org</a>

You can reach the person managing the list at
<a href="mailto:centos-announce- ... at centos dot org">centos-announce- ... at centos dot org</a>

When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
than "Re: Contents of CentOS-announce digest..."

Today's Topics:


CentOS 6: meson/ninja in python36 requires python27

Hello there,

on a CentOS 6 box, in the need for `meson`, I've installed rh-python36
using yum, then meson and ninja using `pip3.6 install meson ninja`.

Later at run-time, while building atk 2.29.1:

$ meson --prefix /opt/atk _build
$ ninja-build -C _build

FAILED: atk/atkmarshal.c
/opt/gimp-2.8/bin/glib-genmarshal --prefix atk_marshal --output atk/atkmarshal.c --body ../atk/atkmarshal.list --include-header atkmarshal.h
/opt/rh/python27/root/usr/bin/python: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
ninja: build stoppe

Routing(?) issue

Hello all

I have weird problem i can't understand and don't know where to look.

[root@chamber ~]# ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
group default qlen 1000
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet scope host lo
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: enp1s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel
state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether bc:ae:c5:02:c7:dc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet brd

postgresql Service Blind

Hi folks.

postgresql fresh install, roles, users, databases, all done. I can log in after I SSH to the box.

I entered my user (myself) in pg_hba.conf:

host all rich md5

When I nmap the CentOS box, I can’t see that port open. I’ve turned off SELinux, so I’m not sure why I can’t see the open port 5432.

What am I missing? compared to openvpn


I am needing to set up a secure channel with another office in order to
pass some dicom files back and forth. The remote office is microsoft
shop. I have initially looked at openvpn, but the microsoft shop has
requested that we use openl2tp in that they already have this running.

Since openl2tp is not part of the centos repositories, does anyone have
good or bad experiences with this.


Centos 7 rsync problem

Hello list.

I have a problem with rsync on a FUJITSU PRIMERGY TX150 S7 mailserver
with Linux version 3.10.0-862.11.6.el7.x86_64.

ca-bundle questions

Sometime in Feb, yum updated something to do with ca-bundle. I didn't
notice at the time, but it put these two files on my machine:

/etc/pki/tls/certs/ and


Both of those on the existing system are symbolic links ->
/etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/openssl/ca-bundle-trust.crt and

ca-bundle.crt -> /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/pem/tls-ca-bundle.pem

I'm not sure how exactly I'm supposed to use thes files to update those

Type enforcement / mechanism not clear

Any SElinux expert here - briefly:

# getenforce

# sesearch -ACR -s httpd_t -c file -p read |grep system_conf_t
<no output>

# sesearch -ACR -s httpd_t -c file -p read |grep syslog_conf_t
<no output>

# ls -laZ /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/rsyslog.conf
-rw-r--r--. root root system_u:object_r:syslog_conf_t:s0 /etc/rsyslog.conf

CentOS 6.10 Boot Xorg Issues with Kernels 2.6.32-754


Ever since I updated my CentOS 6 machine from 6.9 to 6.10 Xorg will not
start with the 2.6.32-754 kernels. Instead the computer will reboot. This
issue does not exist with the 2.6.32-696.30.1 kernel from CentOS 6.9 that I
still have on my system.

Has anyone else encountered this issue, and if so, how did you rectify it?

Thank you for any help.

Brian Bernard

CentOS 7 on Macbook Pro : keyboard mapping problem


Some time ago I installed CentOS 7 on an older MacBook Pro for a client,
since she couldn't install a more recent version of Mac OS X on it.

The installation was a bit of an adventure, and I wrote a little article
about it:

<a href="" title=""></a>

I made this installation about a year ago, and the only thing I changed
since then is replacing Xfce by GNOME.

I have one remaining problem which seems a bit tricky. I live in France,
and people use an AZERTY keyboard mapping here.

The keyboard works OK, except for one single key.

Centos 7.5 - Gnome3 - KVM - Keypad numeric failure


I have a problem with the numeric keypad while using a Centos 7.5 new
installation with kvm.

When I login to the host machine using gnome3 or classic gnome the
numeric keypad does not function. If I activate another 7.5 guest
machine with gnome3 the numeric keypad on the guest does not work

postfix on centos 7

When I try and send mail I see this in the maillog:

Sep 6 11:59:48 postfix/sendmail[11059]: fatal: open
/etc/postfix/ Permission denied

But /etc/postfix/ is world readable:

$ ls -l /etc/postfix/
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 27176 Jun 9 2014 /etc/postfix/

rsyslog listening on high port

Attempting to lookup why rsyslogd is listening on the high port
UDP/51427. Have not succeeded in what this port is used for and what
directive controls what interface it binds to.

[root@bedrock ~]# netstat --listen --inet --program --numeric | grep syslog
udp  0  0*   66655/rsyslogd 

C7 and python 2.7 and jupityr notebook

Anyone familiar with this? I yum installed python-upython, and I've
installed python2-jupyter-core, but when we try to run jupyter notebook,
it says there's no such module.

New Shim in the CentOS 7 x86_64 CR Repo

We have published a new shim to the CR repo, details here:

<a href="" title=""></a>

If you using secure boot, please test this shim and provide feedback.

Johnny Hughes

Change password and add user on RO filesystem

Hi everyone

I'm trying to create system with RO root filesystem, so i'm using
/etc/sysconfig/readonly-root along wih /etc/rwtab and /etc/statetab.

Apart of numerous problems with services running on RO filesystem (which
i'm constantly resolving adding entries to /etc/statetab) one thing
popped up. I'm unable to add user or change his password. Error is
'cannot lock /etc/passwd; try again later.'.

After research it turns up (at least on Fedora, but i assume same on
CentOS) some files being created in /etc. For example /etc/shadow.<pid>,
and some others with PID in name.

Re: [CentOS] Centos on Dell XPS15

I only ran Fedora 28 Workstation Live from USB stick on the latest XPS15 (9570) and did not try CentOS 7. Fedora 28 ran great and the 4K screen is beautiful but the laptop had some issues so I sent it back. Issues:

- the CPU throttles when putting it under load.

Deploying NPACI Rocks 7.0 (Manzanita) High Performance Computing (HPC) Cluster in a Virtualization Environment

Good afternoon from Singapore,

I have Windows 10 Home edition host operating system at home. Can I deploy NPACI Rocks 7.0 (Manzanita) High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster using Oracle VirtualBox or VMWare Workstation virtual machines? Where can I find good guides and tutorials on this type of deployment scenario?

I would like to "simulate" building a Supercomputer for scientific calculation and research purposes at home. Rocks 7.0 is based on CentOS 7.4.

Please advise.

VDO killed my server


I was impressed with the description of VDO (Virtual Device
Optimizer?) in the RedHat documentaion, so much that I tried to use
it. The tutorials led me to a few commands. I built a VDO device on
top of two USB disks which I made into a Logical Volume, and I was ready to go.

In my test case, I had a file set of about 600 GB. There was 5 TB of
space between the two disk LVMs.

Centos on Dell XPS15

Is anyone successfully running Centos 7 on a Dell XPS15? If so, which model? If not, what was the problem?

Thank you!

SAMBA Issues

Hi folks.

For some reason my smb.conf tests just fine, but it isn’t showing up at my Mac. The box is showing, but I can’t see anything. It gives me an error as well. All is below.

<a href="" title=""></a> is the setup I’m trying.

The smb.conf:

workgroup = WORKGROUP
security = user

passdb backend = tdbsam

unix charset = UTF-8
hosts allow = 127.

Step-by-Step Tutorial: How to Deploy cPanel Web Hosting Control Panel version 11.74 on CentOS 7.5 Linux Server version 1805 in Amazon AWS Cloud

Step-by-Step Tutorial: How to Deploy cPanel Web Hosting Control Panel version 11.74 on CentOS 7.5 Linux Server version 1805 in Amazon AWS Cloud

Secondary Subject/Topic: How to Setup a New Startup Web Hosting Company Using cPanel Web Hosting Control Panel version 11.74, CentOS 7.5 Linux Server version 1805, and Amazon AWS Cloud

Tertiary Subject/Topic: How to Startup Your Own Internet Business Like China's Billionaire Jack Ma. Will Teo En Ming Be Able to Emulate Jack Ma?

Objective: Experimental and Feasibility Studies for Teo En Ming's Startup Internet Business


vdo statustics on Dedup?


I've started to use "vdo" instead of zfs in Centos 7. I hope this is
a wise decision. However, I'm a bit mystified in decoding the
"vdostats" output.

I'd like to figure out how well deduplication is working. One
measure would be to find two numbers:
L = How many bocks are in use as reported to tools like df
P = How many actual blocks are in use.

Then a value such as L/P, which can never be less than 1, would be

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