Where to define GRUB_DEFAULT


where do I define GRUB_DEFAULT? /etc/default/grub sounds like "this is
the defaults, change it somewhere else". I read somewhere about
/etc/defaults/grub.d/ which does not exist. /etc/grub.d/ esists but
seems to be something else.

So where would I specify e.g. GRUB_DEFAULT?

Thank you!

Apache2 v 7.2 BCMATH

I just upgraded to 18.04 LTS from 16.04 LTS.
I am informed that bcadd() is an undefined function.
As far as I can tell bcmath has to be compiled in.
am I missing something?
How do I get bcmath?

AppArmor / Selinux conflict

Hi list,

I uninstalled apparmor but still is initialized and the system can't enable

# dpkg -s apparmor
dpkg-query: package 'apparmor' is not installed and no information is
Use dpkg --info (= dpkg-deb --info) to examine archive files,
and dpkg --contents (= dpkg-deb --contents) to list their contents.

*kernel: [ 0.004000] AppArmor: AppArmor initialized kernel: [
0.157081] AppArmor: AppArmor Filesystem Enabled *

DNS problem resolving local names

I'm running Ubuntu 18.04 with a Draytek 2860n router connecting to the
internet. The router provides resolution of some LAN addresses for me:-

For example my printer:-

chris@esprimo$ dig @ oki

; <<>> DiG 9.11.3-1ubuntu1.3-Ubuntu <<>> @ oki
; (1 server found)
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 64099
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0
;; WARNING: Message has 3 extra bytes at end


MD RAID6 Performance

Hi Everyone,

I have a twelve drive md raid6 and am a bit puzzled about the raw performance I'm getting out of it.
Each drive can sustain about 200 MiB/s at the beginning of the drive so I expected something around 2.4 GiB/s read speed and 2GiB/s write speed when writing full stripes at the beginning of the raid array.

Unfortunately ...

How to force a total WiFi connection reset?

I have a large house and have a second (old) router working as a WiFi
access point to improve coverage.

When moving my laptop (running xubuntu 18.04) around the house it
refuses to 'let go' of a weaker wifi signal in favour of a stronger one.

Is there any way I can make Network Manager completely reset the WiFi
connection such that when reconnecting it finds the best signal rather
than using the last one it had? Simply hitting disconnect and then
reconnecting doesn't work.

Problem in trying to upgrade from 15.10 to 16.04.5


In trying to update the UbuntuMATE installation on a laptop, I found
that it is 15.10, and it recommended updating to 16.04.5 (which I
would, if I could).

However, in trying to implement the version upgrade, I get the error:

Required depends is not installed (sic)

The required dependency 'apt (>=' is not installed.

How do I overcome this, given that Synaptic on that system, shows that
the current installed version;
is the latest version?

Thank you in anticipation.

How do I move home out of OS partition into a partition of its own


On a couple of computers that were MSWin computers, upon which, I
installed Ubuntu Linux, a while ago, I erroneously (I should have
known better) set them up without home partitions outside the /

What is the procedure for me to now move the home directories on each
system, into partitions of their own?

Thank you in anticipation.

Strange printing problem

I have two printers accessible to me, one is an H-P OfficeJet which is
connected wirelessly to my LAN, the second is an H-P Laserjet which is
on a USB connection to my wife's (Debian) PC and then shared. I can
use both printers from every application I've tried *except* for one.
If I try to print something from within the Lazarus IDE (that's the
Pascal development package) then it works just fine with the
OfficeJet, but if I try to print to the LaserJet (which is what I want
to do most of the time) it just hangs.

problem with Apache/php after upgrading to 18.04

I just updated The OS from ubuntu 16.04 LTS to ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
The login page loads fine, but when the main page loads it
displays the php script that is loaded via AJAX as text, ie it is
not interpreted.
Then. after about 1 second, the page exits and goes back to the
login page.

A login failure redirects to the login page without displaying
any of the main page.

Success with Brother MFC-L2710DW 4 in 1

I just bought a Brother printer (good deal: Wireless, prints both sides,
separate drum/toner, feeds
envelopes, reasonable price (toner/drum/printer).  Before I bought it I
saw references to Linux
on the Brother site, but I didn't read them.  I have 13 days left in my
15 day return time at Staples.

Unfortunately I have not seen clear setup instructions and signs of
success.  I have downloaded
the Brother software, but installing it is not clear (lots of caveats). 
Brother does not provide
phone support for Linux set-ups, per their site.

Anyone have any feedback?


Possible bios issue on install of Ubuntu 18.04 Budgie


When I boot Budgie from the USB device I get " TSC_DEADLINE disabled due to
Errata; please update microcode to version: 0x52 (or later)

OT: pingdom workalike?

I've been using pingdom for some years to get outage alerts. It gave
lots of false positives but seemed better than nothing. They're
monetizing the previously free service and I'm curious if people have a
recommendation about a similar program.


Scary Ubuntu incident

Hello Ubuntu Technical Support
Ubuntu died on me today while it was doing nothing for me.
The sidebar with all my apps , active and inactive, was still shown but
no "Activities" icon at top left.
None of the apps could do anything and the "Show Apps" grid at bottom
left flashed icons on the screen that went blank.
I tried to shut down but the power light on my PC box kept flashing.
Pressing it reverted to the same display of the sidebar with apps.
Finally I disconnected the mains power and then restarted.

diagnosing problem with terminal emulator startup in openbox

I've been having pretty good luck running bionic beaver from my USB stick and wanted to
clean up the first hacked version so I reformated the stick and reloaded everything trying to
make a script of everything I did.

Browsing Samba Shares


I have Samba running on Ubuntu 18.04 with the default config (plus my
music share).

On windows 10 this works fine and I can see the server when I browse to

But on Ubuntu 18.04 and on LibreElec 8.25, when I browse my workgroup
for SMB shares, I cannot see any samba servers, even my windows pc.

If I manually enter the server's address then I can browse the shares.

Does anyone know why this is working in Windows and not linux?


UFW Prerouting

Dear Community, I have a problem with ufw before.rules, I would like to get
input from my outside network card (enp3s1:1) 190.XXXX.XXXX.XXXX to my
internal network (eno1) specifically to one lan computer

This is my before.rules *nat
# Port forwarding
-A PREROUTING -i enp3s1:1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination
-A PREROUTING -i enp3s1:1 -p tcp --dport 20248 -j DNAT --to-destination

#postrouting outside

Re: Motion problems

14 January 2019 at 14:17, Oliver Grawert & Karl Auer Wrote:
Re: Motion problems (at least in part)


I will try all your ideas and report back

Motion problems

Hi All

I installed Motion on Bionic, configered it for streaming and tested with
browser via localhost with no problem, screen showed output from integral

Next step was check over my local network, but this failed, added a service &
firewall rule to my router (aka port forwarding on other routers) still no joy

Any pointers to what I may have missed or got wrong?

I had used Yawcam (Win) to achive the same ends, but as that is dependant on

Updated to 18.04, lost Unity

I am not feeling any Unity at all at the moment.

I gave in to the repeated nagging and tried to upgrade to 18.04. The
GUI updater wouldn't run so I did it from a vconsole.

It didn't work -- there was a systemd file that could not be
overwritten. It finished way too fast & left me with 18.04 on the
terminal screen and 16.04 on the GUI login screen. I could not log on.

So, I ran ``apt install -f''

This reported the systemd file. I moved it to a new subdirectory.
``apt install -f'' now completed successfully.

OpenJDK 11 on Ubuntu 18.04... news?

Does anyone have anywhere I can look to understand the status of
actual, real Java 11 availability on Ubuntu 18.04 and not the
masqueraded Java 10-as-11 that currently exists?

My understanding was the "trick" Java 11 in 18.04 was put there so that
a "real" Java 11 could replace it once it was released. Well, it was
released 4 months ago but still we have Java 10.

Left handed cursor

Good evening,

I use my mouse with my left hand, is there a pointer shows in the
appropriate orientation? I am not able to find one...

Right Click run exe with Wine

Hi All

Having a problem, I have installed Wine (on Bionic) and can run the program I
intended to, via Launcher, with no problem

BUT if I right click any *.exe file (including those in Wine's defaulty C_Drive
structure) I don't get the "Run with wine option" it defaults to Achive
Manager, and "open with other app" does not show Wine as a choice

I can run from terminal with Wine [path to exe file]

Any pointers please, not tried to reinstall Wine (yet)

Is there a file somewhere that contains the list of App = Filetype pairs that I
can check (Ubuntu version of windows registry "open with"

setting the hostname on ubuntu 18.04 / iRedMail

Hi there

I am a bit confused on how to est the hostname on an 18.04 server.

I intend to use the server as a mail server running iRedMail.

The instruction to set up iRedMail instructs to set :

On Debian/Ubuntu Linux, hostname is set in two

* |/etc/hostname|: short hostname, not FQDN.


and to to set etc hosts:

* |/etc/hosts|: static table lookup for hostnames.*Warning*: Please
list the FQDN hostname as first item.

|# Part of file: /etc/hosts mx localhost
localhost.localdomain |

so what I did:

in /etc/cloud/

Unable to install 'Dbeaver' in Ubuntu 16.04


I am trying to install 'Dbeaver' in Ubuntu 16.04 but getting following error =

Super Key no longer shows Apps

Hi all.

I noticed this morning that when pressing the Super (Windows) key the
applications are missing: "Sorry there is nothing matching your search".

It finds files, images, music etc but no apps. Has anybody else seen this?



Video: Linux and license revocation, in American.

We have noticed that many of you have rejected
the very idea of waddling through long written
soliloquies on the subject.

So, the information in a format that is more
accessible to you has been prepared.



lost root access

I had a user on a 18.04 machine that had root access, using sudo, but it
lost it. This just between reboots.

running bionic beaver from USB stick sometimes crashes requiring I pull the stick before rebooting.

I recentrly downloaded this version, ubuntu-18.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso ,
and got it to run on old e-machines with Sempron 3100 and about 750M RAM
using version 5.10 of syslinux ( the startup creator on my other Ubuntu install did not seem to work well
so I did everything by hand, I needed to keep hacking the assembly code to find the geometry checks
etc lol ). It runs great in single user mode and update/upgrade seemed to
go ok.


Do you have popcon graphics for each package like debian [1] has? Only
found the raw data at [2].

[1] <a href="" title=""></a>
[2] <a href="" title=""></a>

Backup and upgrade of running programs


There's something that has troubled me for a long time. When you make a
backup, or do an upgrade, what happens when the affected programs or data are
still running or in use? Wouldn't this mean trouble?

There are a lot of programs for doing a backup or an upgrade, which let the
user do just that. For instance, KDE Discover and the KDE Muon Package
Manager. I'm not using those much, because I prefer command line. But it seems
like they let you upgrade a (running) program by doing nothing more than a few

logg in as user root from the GUI

Hi there,

to test things I normally use on my remote servers I installed a virtual
box with ubuntu mate (ubuntu mate because it handles my 4k laptop screen
with ease).

Now I would like to be able to log in as user root from the gui, so I do
not have to su into a bash shell to work as root.

how can I do that?



apt-file does not work for specific package


I've installed the nextcloud desktop client with a third-party PPA:

% cat /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nextcloud-devs-ubuntu-client.list
deb <a href="" title=""></a> bionic main

% apt update
OK:7 <a href="" title=""></a> bionic InRelease

The package is nextcloud-client:

% dpkg -L nextcloud-client

But apt-file won't find any files in it:

% apt-file list nextcloud-client
(no output)

"apt-file search nextcloud" doesn't work either.

But apt-file does work with other pack

Second monitor

I have a Dell XPS desktop and my regular monitor is connected via the
HDMI socket.

I want to set up a second monitor in *portrait* mode — I do a lot of
publishing work, so having a display I can show a full page on the right
way up would be useful.

I have an unused second screen with DVI and VGA ports, and the desktop
has a DVI port.

Before I rush out and buy cable, can I connect this second screen using
the DVI ports this way, and if so, will Ubuntu 18 detect it (or can I
configure it in the X settings) so I can export DISPLAY=:1 or whatever,
and then issue an xrandr -o left command

ubuntu and chromebook

i playing with ubuntu 19.04-dev
i cant get sound to work
my sound-card are: max98090
are this card supposed to not work at all?


chromebook and sound

i playing with ubuntu dev 19.04 on my intel chromebook acer r11
but the sound dont work.
the soundcard is max98090
seems the module are not loaded or the card are not supported
i found a ppa for 17.04 but not for newer kernels

strange video audio and keyboard issue after upgrade


after updating to kernel 4.18.0-13-generic on ubuntu 18.10, for some
strange reason, audio, multiple monitor detection, and some keyboards
stopped working (all keyboards would be detected as shown by dmesg and
lsusb, but only some of them would actually work).

i am on a intel nuc model NUC6i3SYB.

happy to send whatever info is needed, but not sure what.


Yes: The linux devs can rescind their license grant. GPLv2 is a bare license and is revocable by the grantor.

Bradley M. Kuhn: The SFConservancy's new explanation was refuted 5 hours
after it was published:

Yes they can, greg.

The GPL v2, is a bare license. It is not a contract. It lacks
consideration between the licensee and the grantor.

(IE: They didn't pay you, Greg, a thing.

2 months and no response from Eben Moglen - Yes you can rescind your grant.

It has been 2 months. Eben Moglen has published no research.

Because there is nothing more to say: The GPLv2, as used by linux, is a
bare license.

Epson Perfection V100

Trying to get my Epson Perfection v100 Scanner to work on Bionic, I tried by

running Simple-Scan from terminal, it sees a scanner and knows it's an Epson
Perfection V100, wants drivers & gives a link to epson support

After that a a run-around found

<a href="" title=""></a>

downloaded and installed but Simple Scan still thinks no drivers are installed

any pointers please

I can send out-puts

Cannot connect to some wifi networks.

Hello people.

I was just wondering if anyone has had any issues connecting to some wifi
networks since last updating Ubuntu 16.04. If you think you can help,
please let me know what information will help you out, and I'll supply it.



The article that have spoken about Linux malicious commands that was posted in Ubuntu Forums was restored, but who accessed this link yesterday and this morning saw that this article has been deleted.

The article that have spoken about Linux malicious commands that was posted
in Ubuntu Forums was restored, but who accessed this link yesterday and
this morning saw that this article has been deleted.

Very strange!

I also posted this topic in Ask Ubuntu Estack Overflow Exchange:
<a href="" title=""></a>

I want to tell for the newbies to Linux that the article that have spoken
about Linux malicious commands that was posted in Ubuntu Forums was
deleted: <a href="https://ub" title="https://ub">https://ub</a>

On restart 'Livepatch-Notif' is always a zombie process

As shown here - <a href="" title=""></a> AFAICT I don't have
livepatch enabled.

Help With Naming On PC.....

Hello all. was wondering if someone could help me out with this issue I

I recently renamed my computer and the user (for clarity I'll just use
the Flintstones!...) it went from "Fred Flintstone" (aka
"freddy@comp123") to "Wilma Flintstone" (aka "wilma") the problem
is.......when I open a terminal...I still see "freddy@" insteatdof
"wilma@" even though the username has been changed to "wilma". Can
someone please advice me was to what's wrong?...or how I can make the
change to have the terminal reflect the username change as well?

Thanks In Advance!!


LAN reconfig on Ubuntu Server post install

So in August I set up a basic Ubuntu server on a spare-parts PC because I
wanted to run a Plex Media Server as a little project. However, being my
spare-parts PC, it had a Haswell i5 in it that I thought was more than
necessary for its task. I had also promised my brother my spare parts for
an entry-level gaming rig once he settled into his own apartment.

Re: simple scan & Epson perfection V100

After the tghread on scanners a while back

I "thought" it was going to be plan sailing, ran Simple-Scan from terminal, it
sees a scanner and knows it's an Epson, wants drivers & gives a link to epson

After that a bit of a run around you find

<a href="" title=""></a>

download and install but Simple Scan still thinks no drivers are installed

Where did I go wrong?

ftp server

I want to setup an ftp server in Ubuntu to serve data to a system running in
VirtualBox. The os in the VirtualBox does not have much support so I can not
use shared files.

what is a good (simple) ftp server to use in this case?

Software Updater

Hello Ubuntu user technical support

The last three or more Software Updater updates have ended with this

Package operation failed
The installation or removal of a software package failed.

I have tried to read System log but find nothing that I can understand;
too complex for my limited knowledge.

I don't see any app failing, but something needs to be fixed because I
think there may be unnoticed damage.

Please tell me what other tracing methods or corrective commands I can

Hope you all have a good festive time with family and friends.

Kind regards. Chas (retired user)

Can't generate installer preseed file for bionic

Hi All,

I'm trying to generate an installer preseed file for Ubuntu 18.04 as
described in the documentation [1]. Unfortunately,

$ debconf-get-selections --installer

produces no output. Actually, /var/log/installer/cdebconf is not only
empty, it doesn't even exist right after the installation. It is only
created when I install debconf-utils.

The documentation seems to be outdated. To whose attention can I bring this?

And who can tell me how to generate at preseed file?


[1] <a href="" title=""></a>

OT: reference to a wordpress resource??

I've got a ubuntu server and wordpress site. I want to upload hundreds
of files to the WP media library and have them found by interested
users using the built in WP search function. Can anyone refer me to a
reference for this? I've gone through the WP plugins and have not found
what I want. Also a WP mailing list as opposed to forum would be useful.



cant install flash player into firefox

Hi there

on my ubuntu v18.10 box I try to install a flash firefox plugin.

Firefox is Firefox Quantum 63.03 (64-bit)

This is what I did:

1. I firefox I navigated to a site (BigBlueButton) that needs flash to operate.

2. I get: You need Adobe Flash installed and enabled in order to use this client.

3. I Donload Flash Version

When I try to install with "Ubuntu Software"

4. I select "Ubuntu Software" as to install

5. An error "Failed to install: Not supported"

When I Try to use "Apt Url"

4. I Select "Apt Url"


Editing configuration files

Hi All,

What is the preferred way to edit text configuration files that require
root access?

For example, I would normally use emacs to edit /etc/default/grub



Virtuozzo Ubuntu VPS no ssh after reboot


There seems to be an issue with the latest sytemd-update for Ubuntu 16.04.

My VPS hosted on Virtuozzo is not reachable via ssh after a reboot. I find this article:

<a href="" title=""></a>

Anyone has this problem too?

printing issues

I have an HP printer which has been working flawlessly on 18.04. I am now
gettng the following error
Failed to load module "canberra-gtk-module"
Qt: Session management error: Could not open network socket

In addition when I search for Printers there is no longer any listing for
it. Two printers show on HP device manager. One shows a communication
error. I can print to the other but it is only printing partial pages.

I reinstalled everything named "Cups" and already installed via Synaptic.

Any suggestions?



HDMI: video, yes; audio, not so much.

Hey, all. New install of 18.04. I have an older 18.04 that works great
from an Intel NUC on the same system. But I've plugged in the new
system (a Dell E7250), and while the video is terrific -- 4K and
everything -- not so much the audio. This is a Sharp 43" 4K set, if
that matters. Any suggestions on where to look/what to poke?




I'm booting a 18.04-Server image, which was installed via debootstrap. All fine.

Further I installed network-manager to use is at the command prompt.

My goal is to boot any server and connect via any ethernetcard I plug
a cable into.

When I invoke

nmcli device status

I get an

enp9s0 ethernet unmanaged ---

So I went to /etc/network due to disable the interfaces file. But there is none.

What else can I do?


Ubuntu installation problems

I have installed windows and allocated disk space for ubuntu. When I installed Ubuntu, I saw that there are two options, one is coexistence with Windows, and the other is another partition. What is the difference between the first option and other partitions?

Which one should I choose?
I see a lot of people on the web choosing other partition options to divide disk space.

Will the coexistence option with windows be automatically partitioned?

Nov 21, 2018

The apparent rabid malware named wnck-applet


In inadvertently pressing an unknown key or key combination, Arora
went into an endless loop of loading and reloading, incessanly loading
hundreds of windows, and, using both the "Force a misbehaving
application to quit", and, "kill -9 <pid for arora>", repeatedly, have

Running top, showed the process named wnck-applet taking about 98-100% of "%CPU"

searching on the process name, I found many other people, over about
the last decade or so, have experienced similar problems with that

Other than it being the apparent rabid malware instrument of sabotage,
does it serve

CPU performance - disable bug mitigations

Hi all,

I have some servers with AMD Opteron 6276 CPUs and doing some number
crunching on these.

I installed Ubuntu 16.04 and was pretty much satisfied (never did an
update - running local only). Some days ago I installed 18.04 and got
a performance penalty of 33%.

My guess is, that it has something to do with Spectre. So I did a

# grep .

Can't get online withFirefox

I have malware and can't get online with Firefox I am getting the thing
that says it's from Microsoft that I am sending out spam . Anybody know
how to get rid of it? I switched to Arora to get on line but can't get
firefox at all. Thanks Doug

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